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What are the most commonly used food fortification agents?(2)

Views: 45     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2023-04-14      Origin: Site


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In China, they are routinely divided into four main categories.

(i) Minerals: calcium, iron, zinc, selenium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, copper, manganese, chromium, strontium, vanadium, etc.

Minerals, also known as inorganic salts, are one of the essential nutrients for the human body, along with vitamins. Minerals comprise more than 60 elements, accounting for approximately 4% of the total body, of which 21 are indispensable to the human body and are divided into macronutrients and micronutrients, depending on their content. The main difference between minerals and vitamins is that minerals cannot be synthesised in the body and are not metabolised in the organism. 

However, minerals that do not seem to be accepted by the body have an important role in the human life cycle. Deficiencies in trace minerals can lead to a variety of diseases, reduce the activity of many enzymes, cause disruptions in the metabolism of proteins and vitamins, and have an impact on respiration, oxidation, haematopoiesis and mental development, among other important vital signs. The teeth and bones in the body are also heavily involved in minerals, and mineral deficiencies can lead to weak bones and teeth and reduced activity of many enzymes such as calcium, iron, zinc and selenium.

Minerals also maintain muscle excitement levels. Minerals such as potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium and iron in the body are essential for neuromuscular excitation and permeability in the body. It is often said that athletes mobilise a large amount of minerals in the course of training in order to ensure the birth of their performance, but excessive intake of minerals can also lead to adverse reactions and, in severe cases, to mineral toxicity. Therefore, a reasonable intake of minerals and a controlled intake of minerals is essential to maintain good health.

food fortification

(ii) Vitamins: VA, VD, VE, VC, VB family (VB1, VB2, VB3, VB5, VB6, VB12), folic acid, biotin, etc.

As an integral part of the human body, vitamins are essential nutrients that regulate the growth and development of the human body, and are mainly classified as fat-soluble or water-soluble. In their physiological role, vitamins do not simply provide energy to the tissues, but they are essential. Most vitamins are not synthesised in the body or are synthesised in very low amounts, for example, vitamin B12 is stored in very small amounts in the body and must be obtained by ingestion, assuming that it is not available in external foods, then the normal development of the body is affected. A deficiency in vitamins will directly affect the continuation of vital signs and allow for the development of specific diseases. Nutritional fortification of foods with vitamins is therefore of great interest.

The chemical structure of vitamins determines the type of composition. Most vitamins are made up of a number of enzymes and coenzymes, which are essential for the maintenance of normal body growth. With the help of vitamins, the main nutrients are synthesised and mediated to produce metabolism. Some vitamins are involved in the metabolism of substances and energy, while others act as cofactors in the body to produce physiological effects, such as vitamin A, which has a unique effect on vision and photoreceptors, vitamin B, which is responsible for aiding the body's metabolism, vitamin C, which has a good control of disease, and vitamin D, which has a unique effect on the absorption of calcium. has a unique effect on the absorption of calcium in the body, etc.

(iii) Amino acids: Taurine and other 18 essential amino acids

(iv) Other nutrients: DHA, AA, oligosaccharides, dietary fibre, prebiotics, lecithin, nucleotides, CPP, choline, L-carnitine, etc.

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