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Production and application of calcium citrate

Views: 78     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2023-01-23      Origin: Site


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Calcium citrate is an organic calcium salt, also known as calcium citrate, usually in the form of a white crystalline powder, slightly soluble in water, soluble in acid, almost insoluble in ethanol, is a safe and efficient calcium supplement, also used as an anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory agent, bone repair material, etc.


Calcium citrate is an intermediate in the industrial production of citric acid, which is isolated from citric acid in the fermentation process. The use of calcium hydroxide in the fermentation process of citric acid neutralises and precipitates insoluble calcium citrate. This is filtered out of the liquid and cleaned to give pure calcium citrate.

The resulting calcium citrate can be sold or converted to citric acid by dilute sulphuric acid.

When used as a nutritional additive, the food grade citric acid is then combined with calcium carbonate (or other calcium salts) to form a high purity calcium citrate.

citric acid


In recent years, calcium citrate has been used in a variety of biomedical applications. For example, calcium citrate has become an excellent calcium supplement and has shown some anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant effects, is effective in the prevention and treatment of hypertension and myocardial infarction, can improve chronic kidney damage and is beginning to be used for bone tissue repair. As a calcium supplement, calcium citrate degrades and is efficiently absorbed in the body without significantly altering the pH of body fluids, and releases calcium ions smoothly and efficiently for effective absorption. Calcium citrate provides a higher concentration of calcium ions than traditional calcium salts for bone repair such as tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite and is a potential new material for bone repair as it is well suited to the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. Besides in the biological field, calcium citrate has also been used in other new materials and can be further carbonised as a template substitute precursor to prepare porous carbon nanosheets, porous carbon nanofibres and flower-like porous carbon microspheres.

Biological significance

In some studies, the bioavailability of calcium citrate was equal to that of calcium carbonate. However, the salt group of calcium carbonate, carbonic acid, tends to precipitate with other ions. Some people who consume calcium carbonate tablets become constipated easily, possibly due to a lack of gastric acid production, and this is where calcium citrate is recommended, as citric acid itself is a salt group that does not precipitate easily. In addition, carbonic acid also produces carbon dioxide in an acidic environment, which is why some people get bloated and hiccups when taking calcium carbonate tablets. Unlike calcium carbonate, calcium citrate is not affected by stomach acid. People who are sensitive to antacids or have difficulty producing enough stomach acid should use calcium citrate instead of calcium carbonate. In a 2009 study on calcium absorption after gastric bypass surgery, calcium citrate may have improved bioavailability compared to calcium carbonate in patients who were given calcium citrate as a dietary supplement after jejunal Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. This is mainly due to the associated changes in calcium absorption in the digestive tract of these individuals.

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